Huc usque Italia ab hinc Gallia.
———Antonine Itinerary, early III cent. (Wesse:206)
Built in the year 6 before Christ at the point the Romans considered the southern end of the Alps, the mountain immediately above Monaco, this monument celebrated Octavian Augustus' victory over the alpine peoples.
Forty-nine meters high, it marked at the time the border between Italy and Gallia. It was built across the Via Iulia Augusta and was visible from the coastal sea routes to Spain.